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Classificatio biologica




Classificatio biologica, vel scientifica in biologia classificatio, est ratio qua biologi organismos digerunt et secundum typum biologicum, sicut genus speciesque, rite describunt. Ea est exemplum taxinomiae scientificae, sed a taxinomia vulgare distinguenda est, quae fundamento scientifico caret.

Hodierna classificatio biologica ex opere Caroli Linnaei deducitur, qui species secundum communes proprietates physicas digessit. Suae dispositiones postea retractatae sunt ut eae cum Darwiniana descensus communis regulis melius congruant. Phylogenetica molecularis, quae pro rebus investigandis sequentiis ADN sive geni utitur, multas emendationes recentiores egit, et haud dubie agendo continuabit. Classificatio biologica ad scientiam systematicae biologicae pertinet.

Index

Gradus taxinomici


Gradus in classificatione biologica est positio (vel positio relativa) in hierarchia taxinomica. Septem primi gradus taxinomici ab internationalibus nominum biologicorum legibus definiuntur: regnum, phylum, classis, ordo, familia, genus, species. Dominium, gradus super regnum, populo recentioribus annis gratum fit, sed inter leges non iam accipitur.

Gravissimus gradus est species, proximus genus, et deinde familia. Aliquando, sed raro, terminus "categoriae taxinomicae" contra gradum adhibetur.

Regna et dominia

Dominia sunt grex novior. Systema trium dominiorum excogitatum est anno 1990, sed celeriter non late acceptum est. Plurimi biologi systema regnorum quinque, multi autem systema trium adhibent. Prima proprietas rationis trium dominiorum est separatio Archaeorum et Bacteriorum, olim in singulum regnum, Bacteria, digestorum, regnum aliquando Moneris appellatum. Ergo, tria vitae dominia habetur: Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota (quae eukaryotes comprehendunt, quibus sunt nuclei).[1] Perpauci scientistae Archaea ut regnum sextum addunt, sed rationem dominiorum reiciunt.


Classificatio biologica v•dr
Imperium
  Regio
   
     
  • Superphylum animalibus aut Superdivisio plantis
    • Phylum animalibus aut Divisio plantis
      • Subphylum animalibus aut Subdivisio plantis
        • Infraphylum animalibus aut Infradivisio plantis
          • "Claudius"
  • Supercohors plantis
    • Cohors plantis
      • Subcohors plantis
       
  • superclassis
  • superdivisio animalibus
    • divisio animalibus
      • subdivisio animalibus
  • legio animalibus
  • supercohors animalibus
    • cohors animalibus
      • subcohors animalibus
         
           
             
  • supergenus
    • genus
      • subgenus
        • supersectio plantis
          • sectio plantis
            • subsectio plantis
              • series plantis
                • subseries plantis
               
  • superspecies animalibus aut grex plantis
    • species
      • klepton
        • subspecies animalibus aut varietas bacteriis
          • hybris
            • convarietas plantis
              • supervarietas plantis
                • varietas aut forma sive morpha animalibus
                  • subvarietas plantis
                    • natio
                      • superforma plantis
                        • forma plantis
                          • subforma plantis
                            • aberratio
                              • lusus


Nexus interni


Notae


  1. Joel Cracraft et Michael J. Donaghue, editores, Assembling the Tree of Life (Oxoniae: Oxford University Press, 2004), praecipue pp. 45, 78, 555.

Bibliographia


Nexus externi











Categoriae: Classificatio biologica | Systemata classificationis








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